What may be surprising is the nature of the conceptual link between such narrations and "intelligence. The variety of narrative descriptions that the adverb "intelligently" collects may be parcelled out into at least two different sets of "conditions" for the application of the term, each with special and different contexts together with different sets of "rules" for that application. Some concepts which were thought to be somehow "intrinsically" linked with intelligence such as "intention" or "learning" will be found to be either a part of the general context not a condition of application, or to have only a contingent relationship to that concept.
The result is an analysis of intelligence that is neither dualistic nor merely dispositional, but one which hopefully captures the varieties of uses made of the concept. The general thrust of my thesis is to support the Rylean analysis but to also show that limits exist between the application of the concept of intelligence, and other mental-conduct concepts. It will be necessary to demonstrate a distinct difference between the concepts of ability, "know-how", and intelligence as a failing in the dispositional analysis.
Also, we need to demonstrate the differences that exist between such concepts as intention, purpose, learning, and intelligence, thereby blocking their purported candidacy as analytic conditions for the application of intelligence terms. Examples can be chosen from the psychological and biological literature to illustrate both technical and commonplace uses of the words of intelligence in order to obtain a sampling that can serve as "criteria" for the application of the words of "intelligence.
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I believe that such criteria cannot be described as either analytic or synthetic, and that there does not exist a single criterion or single class of criteria, but rather two groups of mutually compatible criteria, each with a different basis of use, dependent on differences of comparison. In The Concept of Mind , Ryle makes the claim that " intelligence " is a " determinable " disposition and that it is a species of " knowing how," a kind of ability, competence, or skill. His argument for the first of these claims focuses on the dispositional use of the concept expressed by the adjective "intelligent," and makes the claim that in order for a concept to be determinate, its exemplary action-contents must invariably be found in the verb expresses its occurrence.
Thus "baker" is a highly determinate dispositional concept because there exists a specific verb that is its exemplary: "to bake. There is no verb answering to an essential and specific activity of the grocer, there is no "grocing" activity, and this latter condition holds for the concept of intelligence as well, making it a highly generic or determinable concept.
Ryle's use of the determinate-determinable distinction leads to misconception due to an ambiguity in that distinction. There appear to be two separable notions in the idea of the "determinable:". To say that a concept is polymorphous is to say that there is not one unique kind of action or occurrence associated with it, but a wide range of different kinds of actions and occurrences. To say that a concept is determinable is to say that the totality of actions and occurrences associated with it have never been nor are they likely to be enumerated.
When Ryle says that " intelligence " is determinable he means to say that it is both polymorphous and determinable. But while he provides evidence of its polymorphousness, he does not show it to be determinable.
Showing that a concept is one of these is not showing that it is the other. A concept may be polymorphous and determinate, and Ryle has not shown that " intelligence " is not so. Intelligence has an adverbial significance. Derivative from the function of the adverb, "intelligently, " as a verb modifier, the concept has essential reference not to specific verbs, but rather to the manner or style of proceeding of nearly any verbs descriptive of the proceedings of an agent, so that whether the concept of intelligence is determinable or determinate is not discoverable from grammatical features alone.
The various contexts in which agents are said to act intelligently need to be surveyed in order to elicit the used for the application of the concept. Whether the criteria vary without end or are invariably repeated or something in between can only be uncovered by such context imbedded surveys. Another distinction must be made for an avoidance of the Rylean error and that is the distinction betwen exemplaries and occasions.
The verb in " Aristotle reasons logically " is not an exemplary of the tendency to be logical as the verb in " He baked a cake " is an exemplary of the tendency to bake.
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The exemplaries of a concept are either analytically or " criteriologically " connected with the concept, while occasions need not be and usually are only contingently connected. Coupling an exemplary with the adverb of the concept leads to redundancy in a way in which the coupling of occasions with the adverb does not. While there is no redundancy in " Aristotle reasons logically, " there is redundancy in " Aristotle draws valid inferences logically. By failing to distinguish between exemplaries and occasions Ryle erroneously assumes that the action-contents of a disposition that is , its exemplaries can only be expressed by its verb, otherwise the concept must be indeterminate.
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If there are no unique action-contents as expressed by a verb that serve as necessary and sufficient conditions criteria for the application of that concept, then it has no " essential " characterisitics. This it appears to Ryle is the case with " intelligent " for there is no unique verb of intelligence such as "intelligenting.
Intelligence words find their exemplaries action-contents not in those occasions which are described by the verbs of sentence, but in the episode-qualifying narratives that the adverb of a sentence collects. To put this another way, the disposition to intelligence as expressed by the adjective 'intelligent' finds its exemplaries action-contents in those process-fashions or episode-manners that 'intelligently' the adverb names.
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There does not exist a unique verb of intelligence,but this does not mean that intelligence is determinable, it may well be polymorphous and determinate. Ryle's claim that intelligence is a species of " knowing-how " runs afoul of the fact that abilities can be exercised unintelligently whereas liabilities may be exercised intelligently. The position that intelligence and know-how are more or less the same thing lends credence to the supposition that intelligence is an indeterminate concept, for the number of things we may know how to do are indefinite, and so if intelligence is a kind of ability, then it too is indeterminate.
But since intelligence is not an ability at all but rather a capacity something that cannot be acquired this support for the indeterminacy thesis fails. The insistence that unless a concept has exemplaries that are both necessary and sufficient conditions of its application, then it is determinable, is overly-stringent. Wittgenstein has shown us how it is possible in ordinary language to obtain conditions for the application of a concept that are not so sharply drawn as is analyticity, but which nevertheless permits us to obtain a disjunction of criteria that are stronger than synthetic but weaker than analytic.
This opens the way for the possibility that the characteristic components of the concept in question even if it be polymorphous form a closed list that is the list of disjuncts are not indeterminate but finite. Holoway's analysis of the concept of intelligence suggests that aside from criteria of intelligence, there may also be criteria that focus on the antitheses of intelligence, or on intelligence-contrasts, that would allow us to recognize the intelligence of specific acts in specific contexts. On this account, an act would be judged intelligent once such other possibilities as chance, instinct, and habit are ruled out of consideration.
It appears then that, depending on context, the criteria of intelligence may sometimes " describe " action-contents exemplaries characteristic of intelligent behavior, or provide us with a denial that the action-contents in question are characteristic of instinct, or habit, or reflex, or chance, and so on. Such a listing of disjuncts may be called contrast-criteria, for these are contrasts between different kinds of process-fashions or styles of proceeding.
Both sets of criteria for intelligence operate within a context that this concept has in common with such concepts ashabits, tropisms, and instincts, and this is a means to ends context. They are all purpose-adapted styles of proceeding, and this may be one reason why some of these are confused for one another. I conclude that intelligence-words are expressive of a manner of doing things that may be narrated in one of two ways.
The first of these narrations takes the form of a series of contrasts, which when put together as a list of disjuncts may be called the contrast-criteria of intelligence:. Most people can certainly provide examples or ideas of intelligence only in regard to people. Since the concept of intelligence seems to only be based of ideas and examples constructed from individual people, how valid the tests, given to children and adults, to measure intelligence? The assessment of intelligence from the past and present are factors. To this day, we do not have an official definition of intelligence.
However, there are multiple theories about intelligence out. Therefore, business intelligence was born. In this essay, it mainly discussed the impact and advantage of business intelligence to enterprise development, and it also give some examples of applications to help understand the function of business intelligence system. Intelligence and concepts alike categorized as evolutionary fugues, the vast, detailed state of the brain and it 's understanding is still being processed and heavily evaluated.
Chances are you may have heard terms brainiac, smarty pants, genius the list goes on, these are some names associated with someone with alto intelligence. Most might perceive persons of intellect as renown people with endless information about.
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All rights reserved. Neural Network Concept in Artificial Intelligence Abstract Since the 's there have been renewed research efforts dedicated to neural networks. The present interest is largely due to the difficult problems confronted by artificial intelligence, and due to the deeper understanding of how the brain works, the recent developments in theoretical models, technologies and algorithms.
One motivation of neural network research is the desire to build a new breed of powerful computers to solve a variety. The main purpose of this research exercise is to evaluate the concept of global leadership and cultural intelligence. The research exercise is divided into two critical sections for the achievement of the goals and objectives.